Table of Contents

## Introduction

Electric current is the essence of electricity science. Protons with a positive charge, positive ions, or holes, and in the conveyor wire. The electric current measures the number of charges flowing through a certain point in the wire per time unit, which are electrons.

It represents any movement resulting from electric charge carriers. In electrical circuits, the rate at which shipments flow through a certain point within the circuit so that these charges are negative-charge electrons.

The electric current is the flow of electrical charges through an electrical conductor. Charges are either electrons, protons, or ions, measured by the amp unit.

And the power is divided into two types: the continuous one-way electric current and the accruing electric current that flows in two directions.

One of the essential characteristics of the electric current without which it cannot flow is the difference in voltage and electrical resistance. The om act derives from calculating the electric current. The difference of voltage is divided by resistance.

The power supply applies in many electrical applications, such as an electric heater, mobile phone, computer, sizeable electrical grid system. Or any remote sensor node that the electric current is the basis of its operation. And the flow of electron charges through the electric circuit varies according to voltage.

So the unique mathematical formula of the electric current is derived from the law of om, which represents the ratio of electricity with voltage. And resistance difference during the conductor. As follows Electric current = voltage/resistance difference symbols can represent it: t = c/m I = V / R as T (I): The power supply measures in the amp unit. C (V): Voltage difference measured in voltage unit. M (R): Resistance measures by the om unit.

## Types of Electrical Current

There are two types of electricity: continuous electric current, known as direct current, and coded (DC). It is the electric current that flows through the connector in only one direction. And one example applied to it is batteries.

Ac Alternating Current symbolizes by ac. It reflects and changes its direction in each cycle as it flows through the conductor so that the current generates and changed direction back and forth.

## Electrical Current Properties

Knowing its characteristics of it is essential. It is a crucial element in the electrical circuits and electricity production in our lives. And here are the features of the electric current:

Electric power: the electricity flowing through the conductor produces the electrical energy that can convert into another form of energy such as thermal, photovoltaic. And also, other energy. For example, the electric power in an iron box converts into thermal energy.

While the electrical power in the lamp converts into light energy. The direction of electrical current: the traditional direction of it is known to flow electrons towards the positive end of the battery and away from the opposing end. Voltage difference.

For the flow of it to occur. An electrical voltage difference must occur between the two transmission points, i.e., the force from a group of electrons at one point is greater than the power of electrons at the other point. So that the more significant pressure pushes electrons away from the first point towards the second point.

Electrical resistance: to create an electric current, flow also must provide the path through which electrons can travel. Some materials can give this path and others can not offer it. So that the materials that allow the flow of it are called conductors.

While the materials that prevent the flow of the current are known as insulators. And therefore the conductivity is inversely related to resistance. And the opposition measure by the unit of the um.

## Speed of Flow of Electrical Charges

The electric field in the electrical conductors causes random movement of shipments so that shipments flow randomly in the opposite direction of the electric field and expresses the relationship of current speed and speed of flow of freight through the conductor as follows.

Electric current = the amount of electrical charge in each particle × the number of charges× the transverse area of the connector × the speed of the charges flows. It can be represented by symbols as follows. I = qnAv as I:

The power supply in Mosul measures in the amp unit (Colom/w). q: the charge in each particle measure in the unit. n. The number of shipments in the connector per unit is size and measures by an electron/m7 unit. A:

## Conclusion

The current can be defined as the amount of cargo flow through an electrical conductor over a period called the power intensity. When the conductor exposes to an electric field, its charges move in random motion in reverse of the area. And their speed can calculate using the law: I = qnAv.